Category Archives: 2020 year

SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF DIJKSTRA’S ALGORITHM IN GRAPH-STRUCTURAL MODELING OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC SYSTEMS USING METAGRAPHS


UDC 519.179
DOI:10.26102/2310-6018/2020.29.2.008

N.Y. Zhbanova, A.I. Miroshnikov

The developing of social networks, various data collection and storage systems and the accumulation of large amounts of information graph structures received another incentive for development. Since one of their main advantages is the ability to present compact and understandable models of complex systems. The graph-structural approach is especially productive in solving problems related to the analysis of various nature networks such as social networks, web graphs, traffic road networks and others. These objects are characterized by a large volume and complex structure so the question of using generalized graph structures to describe them is very relevant. A number of advantages can be distinguished as a justification: reducing the dimension of the source data without losing information, reducing the complexity of interpreting intermediate results, the ability to remodel tasks at several stages and others. The article is devoted to issues related to the development of the mathematical apparatus for constructing graphostructural models of complex systems. Generalizations of the concept of a graph such as undirected and oriented hypergraphs and metagraphs are considered. An example of a software implementation of a hierarchical system based on a metagraph is given. This approach allows to vary the degree of data detail without its modification.

Keywords:graph structures, metagraphs, socio-economic systems, graph-structural modeling, Dijkstra’s algorithm, graph condensation.

Full text:
ZhbanovaMiroshnikov_2_20_1.pdf

METHOD OF DETECTION OF HIDDEN DATA USING STEGANOGRAPHY METHOD KOCH-ZHAO


UDC 004.932.2
DOI:10.26102/2310-6018/2020.29.2.007

D.E. Vilkhovskiy

The article proposes an image analysis algorithm with a built-in message based on the Koch-Zhao steganographic method. The object of research is the image into which the Koch-Zhao embedding was carried out. The key idea is a comparative analysis of pairs of coefficients of a discrete cosine transform. For this, the dependence of the difference of the coefficients on the block number is constructed. Numerical differentiation of this dependence makes it possible to determine the boundaries of the embedded message. After that, the analysis of the initial dependence on the selected interval makes it possible to establish the applicable parameters of the Koch-Zhao method. Scientific novelty lies in the development of the steganographic analysis algorithm of the Koch-Zhao method, based on the analysis of discrete cosine transform coefficients, characterized in that it contains an automatic step search module that allows you to determine the embedding parameters and extract the message. Computer experiment completed. It is established that the proposed algorithm makes it possible to establish with absolute accuracy the size, content and location of the hidden message, in the case when it is embedded in a continuous sequence of blocks. The practical significance of the results lies in the fact that the developed software package allows stego analysis of images with data using the Koch-Zhao method with low filling of the stegocontainer (less than 40% of bits of the zero bit layer).

Keywords:analysis of DCT coefficients, identification of stego inserts, analysis of a stegocontainer, analysis of images with inserts, Koch-Zhao method.

Full text:
Vilkhovskiy_2_20_1.pdf

AN ALGORITHM FOR IDENTIFYING STEGANOGRAPHIC INSERTS OF THE LSB-REPLACEMENT TYPE BASED ON THE HIERARCHY
ANALYSIS


UDC 004.932.2
DOI:10.26102/2310-6018/2020.29.2.006

A.K. Guts, D.E. Vilkhovskiy

The article proposes an algorithm for identifying steganographic inserts implemented as a replacement of the least significant bits. The proposed algorithm is based on the hierarchy analysis method. The layers of the least significant bits of the blue component are considered. The embedding areas are determined using the taxonomy algorithm. A preprocessing algorithm is applied in order to increase efficiency in areas that contain gradient fill. The scientific novelty lies in the development of an algorithm for steganographic analysis of the LSB replacement method with low filling of the container, based on a comparative analysis of several image layers using the hierarchy analysis method, characterized in that the selected decision criteria provide the opportunity to take into account the structure of the original container image that is stored in higher bit layers and due to this it is possible to form a map of suspicious pixels, increasing efficiency embedded messages.A computer experiment was performed. For artificial images with gradient and uniform fill, the proposed algorithm makes it possible to determine on average 91% of the replaced bits, while false positives are no more than 1%. The position of the embedded bits can be determined by matching the decision matrix with the initial image.The proposed algorithm is effective for the small size of the embedded message, in contrast to the previously created algorithms.

Keywords:identification of stego inserts, analysis of images with inserts, analysis of stegocontainer, search for LSB inserts, embedding LSB.

Full text:
GutsVilkhovskiy_2_20_1.pdf

THE SYNTAX AND OPERATIONAL SEMANTICS OF THE TARGET LANGUAGE IN THE IMPLEMENTING THE «ASSUME AND ALLOW» TECHNOLOGY WHEN COMBINING LOOPS FOR PROGRAM VERIFICATION


UDC 004.7
DOI:10.26102/2310-6018/2020.29.1.005

D.V. Lysov

Loop Fusion – Converting a program to combine multiple consecutive loops into one – has been studied mainly for compiler optimization. The paper proposes a new strategy for combining loops, which can combine any loops even loops with data dependency. It is shown that this is useful for the verification program, because it can simplify cycle invariants. The essence of the merge cycle is as follows: if the state after the first cycle was known, two bodies of the cycle can be calculated simultaneously, regardless of the data by renaming the program variables. Loop Fusion creates a program that guesses an unknown state after the first cycle, non-deterministically executes a merged cycle in which variables are renamed, compares the guessed state and the state actually calculated by the merged loop, and, if they do not match, diverges. The last two steps of the comparison and the discrepancy are crucial for maintaining partial correctness. The «suppose and allow» approach is so named because, in addition to the first step (suppose), the last two steps can be expressed by the «allow» pseudo-instruction used in program verification.

Keywords:cycle transformation, program verification, cycle invariants, operational semantics, target language.

Full text:
Lysov_2_20_1.pdf

RESOLVING CONFLICTS OF INTEREST BETWEEN CONSTRUCTION PROJECT PARTICIPANTS BY OPTIMIZING RESOURCE ALLOCATION


UDC 681.3
DOI:10.26102/2310-6018/2020.29.2.004

S.I. Sigarev, V.A. Chertov, O.E. Shugay

The problem of resolving conflicts of interest between participants in construction projects by optimizing resource allocation is Considered. In contrast to the traditional optimization approach, which often does not provide a solution in conflict conditions, it is proposed to use a complex Nash-Pareto criterion. In this case, the conflict of interest is resolved, since it becomes unprofitable for project participants to overestimate their resource requirements, and their resource needs are met to the maximum extent possible. A mathematical formulation of this problem is given, and based on V.N. Burkov, D.A. Novikov and Y.B. Germeier, is her decision. We consider two types of models for Nash-balanced resource allocation between project participants: direct and reverse priority. In the first case, the resource is distributed according to the principle: “more you ask – more will be given”, in the second – “more you ask – less will be given”. For these models, their varieties are distinguished: simple, taking into account the resource utilization coefficient, with a fine and with an incentive. For all types of models and their modifications, formulas are written to determine the resource allocation plan. The article describes an algorithm for resolving conflicts of interest between participants in construction projects by optimizing resource allocation, based on the above models and the results of their analysis. A distinctive feature of the algorithm is that the settlement of the conflict of interests of participants is supported by the search for Pareto-optimal resource allocation plans. As a discussion of the results, we consider a task where several types of resources are distributed, rather than one. It is shown that taking into account the integration of supplies and interchangeability of resources of different types, such a problem can be reduced to solving a problem for one type of resource, and the conflict of interests can be resolved using the proposed algorithm.

Keywords:conflict, construction, project, resource, distribution, optimality, Nash equilibrium, Pareto optimality, algorithm. conflict, construction, project, resource, distribution, optimality, Nash equilibrium, algorithm.

Full text:
SigarevSoavtors_2_20_1.pdf

MODELS FOR DEFINING CONTROL MOMENTS IN MULTI-LEVEL ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEMS


UDC 65.012
DOI:10.26102/2310-6018/2020.29.2.003

A.V. Potudinsky, A.P. Preobrazhensky

Process control in organizational systems is an activity aimed at fulfilling tasks (plans, fulfilling orders) throughout the list of system processes. To accomplish this task, management must timely evaluate the implementation of the program, monitor the tendency of performers to deviate from the planned norm and direct the resources at its disposal to eliminate these deviations. In many areas, the calculation of the number of intermediate and final results is automated, and staff can at any time know the numbers that characterize the progress. However, in areas such as construction, high technology and some others, it is rather difficult to evaluate how the program is implemented. Each operation to show the actual implementation of the program and control the timing of each type of result requires full monitoring. This is an expensive operation, often requiring a suspension of the process. Therefore, it is desirable that this be done as rarely as possible, but at the same time, the moment should not be missed when the tendency to deviation will develop into a threat to the program. The process of managing the work of an organizational system of a single-purpose type is considered, the volume of the program of which is expressed as a general equivalent – in units of output (tasks) or in cost. For programs that solve several important types of tasks, it is necessary to simultaneously monitor each type of task.

Keywords:control moment, organizational systems, program execution, modeling, single-purpose type.

Full text:
PotudinskyPreobrazhensky_2_20_1.pdf

ALGORITHMIZATION OF MUTUAL INFORMATION CONSENT IN SYSTEMS WITH A DISTRIBUTED REGISTRY, BASED ON A BLOCK CHAIN


UDC 004.056.2
DOI:10.26102/2310-6018/2020.29.2.002

S.S.Eskov, O.J.Kravets

The object of research is distributed registry systems based on a chain of blocks. The subject of the research is mathematical and software for distributed data processing in solving the problem of achieving mutual information coordination in distributed registry systems based on a chain of blocks. The purpose of the work is to develop an algorithm for the functioning of a system node with the ability to implement non-standard functions, an algorithm for mutual information matching in a distributed registry system based on a chain of blocks, planning numerical experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of mathematical and software for mutual information matching in distributed registry systems based on a chain of blocks. The study of existing approaches has shown that most studies do not fully take into account the simultaneous implementation of non-standard functions by nodes and changes in the structural and parametric characteristics of the system due to the combination of nodes in groups. As a result, an algorithm for the functioning of the system node is proposed, which takes into account the possibility of implementing non-standard functions: the formation of a branch of the processed data and a temporary blocking attack. A generalized algorithm for the functioning of a distributed registry system based on a chain of blocks when performing an algorithm for mutual information coordination, taking into account the possibility of combining nodes into groups, is presented. The numerical experiment was planned.

Keywords:distributed ledger technology, formalization, algorithm, mutual information agreement, non-standard functions, centralization.

Full text:
EskovKravets_2_20_1.pdf

MATHEMATICAL AND SIMULATION MODELING OF A CLOSED DISTRIBUTED REGISTRY WITH A CONTROL NODE


UDC 004.942
DOI:10.26102/2310-6018/2020.29.2.001

V.A. Evsin, S.N. Shirobokova, S.P. Vorobyov, V.A. Evsina

This article presents mathematical and simulation modeling of a distributed registry with a control node on the example of the raft consensus algorithm. The process of interaction between individual nodes of the distributed registry network is described, special attention is paid to the algorithm for conducting transactions within this network. The key aspect of this article is the development of a mathematical model of a distributed registry network as a Queuing system using queue theory. We consider the conceptual models of both the distributed registry as a whole and the model of the information process for accessing a cluster of notary nodes. Mathematical modeling of the distributed registry network, as well as the information process of obtaining access to the control node of the network. The state space is represented in a distributed registry with a control node. The description of an infinitesimal matrix for estimating the probability of transitions between States in a distributed registry is formed, the transition probabilities and the intensity of these processes are described. The characteristic of the laws of distribution of indicators in the system under consideration is described. Another important aspect of this article is the simulation of the process in order to identify the best combination of parameters to achieve maximum efficiency. A stack of variable indicators of the simulation model is formed. Tests were carried out on the basis of which the most effective set of characteristics was selected empirically. The results of mathematical and simulation modeling of a distributed registry with a control node are presented.

Keywords:distributed registry, DLT system, consensus algorithm, mathematical modeling, infinitesimal matrix, Queuing theory, queue theory, simulation modeling.

Full text:
EvsinSoavtors_2_20_1.pdf

DESTRUCTIVE INFORMATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCE IN SOCIAL NETWORKS


UDC 004.942
DOI:10.26102/2310-6018/2020.28.1.043

V.P. Okhapkin, E.P. Okhapkina, A.O. Iskhakova, A.Y. Iskhakov

The article discusses the problem of the destructive information influence in social networks revealing. It is noted that the tasks that are associated with the rapid detection of destructive information influence are prerequisites for the development and improvement of methods and means for identifying such influences in social networks. To understand the social dynamics of social networks groups we consider: the communication model proposed by Theodore Newcomb, Kurt Levin’s “planar map”, and Fritz Haider’s theory of cognitive balance. UN documents on the counteraction of the use of the Internet for the extremist purposes and radicalization were analyzed. The role of the cognitive approach to the analysis of social network messages and the main scenarios implemented by influence actors in texts aimed at different audiences are considered. The study presents a systematic approach to the task of designing a multi-agent platform. Special attention is paid to the block of pattern analysis of user’s messages in social networks both from the position of mathematical modeling and social dynamics. The article describes the architecture and methods of the multi-agent system for the destructive information and humanitarian impact detection. The system consists of the administration interface, subsystems for the multi-agent system administration and agents management, clustering agents, network messages analysis and dispersion analysis. The description of the main blocks of agents and subsystems is given.

Keywords:multi-agent technologies, cluster analysis, information security, aggression, radicalization, machine learning, personality, information and psychological impact destructive informational impact, socio-cyberphysical system.

Full text:
OkhapkinSoavtors_1_20_1.pdf

COMPARISON OF THE ACCURACY OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA APPROXIMATION USING THE LEAST RELATIVE SQUARES METHOD WITH THE LEAST SQUARES METHOD


UDC 678.04
DOI:10.26102/2310-6018/2020.28.1.042

A.B. Golovanchikov, M.K Doan, A.B. Petrukhin, N.A. Merentsov

The results of comparing the accuracy of approximation of experimental or tabular data obtained using the standard method of least squares (LSM) and the proposed method of least relative squares (LRSM), for example, a given table dependence of the viscosity of a water-glycerine solution on the mass concentration of glycerol. The advantage of the latter is shown as the sum and average values of the local relative deviation of calculated data of viscosity of the desired solution obtained by LRSM, with similar data obtained by standard LSM and maximum values of these relative deviations. So, calculated using LSM average relative deviations of theoretical viscosity of an aqueous solution of glycerin from the specified table, in absolute value equal to 12.9%; LRSM of 5.8%, i.e., below 2 times. Accordingly the largest relative deviations in the LSM are 17.9%, and LRSM – 10.6 %, that is, reduced by 68%. It is proposed to determine the conditional values of parallel experiments based on the experimental data of the main experiment. To do this, the calculation of conditional numerical values of the i-th parallel experience is determined by the method of piecewise linear approximation of i-1 and i+1 numerical values of the main experience or table data. A correlation analysis is performed to determine the correlation coefficients, reproducibility, adequacy, and significance of the coefficients of the resulting regression equation.

Keywords:linearization, approximation, absolute and relative deviations, LSM and LRSM, correlation coefficient, reproducibility, adequacy, significance.

Full text:
GolovanchikovSoavtors_1_20_2.pdf