Category Archives: Biotechnical and medical systems

AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF A CONTINUOUS ROBOT USING THE FABRIK ALGORITHM

UDC 621.865.8
DOI:10.26102/2310-6018/2019.27.4.004

V.V. Danilov, D.Y. Kolpashchikov, N.V. Laptev


Nowadays transcatheter minimally invasive surgery has gained popularity due to the shorter rehabilitation period of patients and lower risks during such interventions. However, this type of surgery is manually performed by surgeons and clinicians, which requires a high skill of specialists. Additionally, transcatheter surgery takes a lot of time and thereby increases the risk of medical error. The robotic solutions available today are expensive and inaccessible to most hospitals, clinics and medical centers. A solution of this problem may be the development of a simple automated control system, the usage of which will increase accuracy, repeatability, and reduce the risks related to the human factor. A medical catheter represents a manipulator that can bend in any point of its structure. This structural feature allows these manipulators to work in places with complex geometry, including the anatomical structures of the human body. In this regard, catheters have found their application in many fields, including medicine and industry. However, the control of this type of robots is complicated by the presence of flexible links tending to infinity. For positioning and orientation of continuous robots, forward and inverse kinematics algorithms are used. One of the most promising approaches is the Forward And Backward Reaching Inverse Kinematics algorithm (FABRIK). In this regard, this paper presents a fast and reliable system without feedback and based on the FABRIK algorithm for automatic control of a continuous robot.

Keywords: continuous robot, catheter, automation, positioning, FABRIK.

Full text:
ThuRainSoavtors_4_19_1.pdf

METHOD OF DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTICS OF THE NOSOLOGICAL FORM OF VIRAL HEPATITIS WITH THE APPLICATION OF NEURAL NETWORK OF CASCADE CORRELATION

UDC 004.891.3
DOI:10.26102/2310-6018/2019.26.3.028

A.N. Astafev


An important aspect of determining the nosological form of hepatitis is the combination of input data at the beginning of the study. The use of neural networks in medicine, which have the ability to search for hidden dependencies by learning from the experience of doctors, makes it easier to work in the role of advisor. However, the question of selecting the most effective topology for a specific task remains open. This paper substantiates the need to use neural network algorithms to solve the problem of determining the nosological form of hepatitis. The analysis and selection of input factors characterizing the clinical condition of the patient, and output factors characterizing the specific nosological form of hepatitis, neural network. The algorithm, its use is described, and a cascade neural network is compared with others in the context of the problem under consideration. At the end, a description is made of the established system for determining the nosological form of hepatitis using a cascade correlation neural network, and also describes the clinical efficacy.

Keywords: neural network, viral hepatitis, nosological form of hepatitis, neural network of cascade correlation, classification.

Full text:
Astafev_3_19_1.pdf

INFORMATION-MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR RESEARCH OF KINEMATICS OF MOVEMENTS OF THE LOWER LIMBS OF THE PERSON AND WIRELESS DATA TRANSFER

UDC 681.2.089
DOI:10.26102/2310-6018/2019.26.3.011

A.V. Tsareva, A.Y. Kurochkin, V.V.Alekseev


Currently, in medical rehabilitation there are no mobile measuring instruments with software and algorithmic software necessary to control the recovery of the patient in the postoperative period. The existing video systems of motion kinematics control have a high cost and dimensions, so that the acquisition of such a system by medical institutions is difficult. The article describes the information-measuring system for assessing the technique of human walking, consisting of sensors attached to the body and a program on a personal computer that processes the values obtained from the sensors. In the course of work on the creation of this system, rules for selecting the transmission frequency for the measuring channels required for the identification of the step phases using micromechanical sensors have been developed. The spectral characteristics of the accelerometer sensor for each axis of orientation, respectively, are given. The variants of the server implementation when exchanging information via TCP IP Protocol are considered. The software of the server of the distributed information-measuring system is developed. Experimental data of information transfer for each variant of information exchange on the TCP IP Protocol are given. The solution for obtaining the required transmission frequency is described. This system provides for the possibility of use at home, which will help the doctor, the methodist and the patient to monitor the rehabilitation process both during hospital stay and after discharge.

Keywords: biomechanics, medical rehabilitation, kinematic portrait of a person, walking technique, transfer of measuring information

Full text:
TsarevaSoavtori_3_19_1.pdf

MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO ASSESS THE INFLUENCE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS ON THE EMERGENCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES IN THE ELECTRICITY SECTOR

UDC 615.47
doi:10.26102/2310-6018/2019.25.2.013

M. A. Myasoedova, N. A. Korenevskiy, L. V. Starodubtseva,
M. V. Pisarev


The aim of the study is to develop mathematical models for assessing the impact of electromagnetic fields of different modality and intensity on the human body providing a solution to the problems of assessing the health of people employed in the electric power industry with acceptable accuracy for medical practice.The technology of soft computing and, in particular, is chosen as the basic mathematical apparatus, the methodology of synthesis of hybrid fuzzy decision models developed in the South-West state University has proven itself in the synthesis of mathematical models of forecasting, early and differential diagnosis of diseases with a similar structure of the studied classes of States. As an example, a mathematical model for predicting the appearance and development of immune system diseases in employees of electric power enterprises of the Kursk region is described. Fuzzy mathematical models use membership functions with basic variables that take into account the intensity of the electromagnetic field of industrial frequency, work experience in the power industry and individual risk factors that provoke the appearance and development of diseases of the nervous system. In the course of mathematical modeling and expert evaluation it was shown that the use of the chosen methodology of synthesis of hybrid fuzzy mathematical models allowed to obtain a mathematical model of forecasting and development of diseases of the immune system in employees of the electric power complex with confidence exceeding 0.9.

Keywords: :mathematical model, fuzzy logic, occupational diseases, immune system, power engineering, forecasting

Full text:
MyasoedovaSoavtori_2_19_1.pdf

INFORMATION TRAINING SYSTEM FOR DISTANCE LEARNING THE METHODOLOGY FOR CARRYING OUT A MICRONUCLEAR TEST IN A HUMAN BUCKLE EPITELIUM

UDC 576.08:575.224
doi:10.26102/2310-6018/2019.25.2.012

V.N. Kalaev, M.S. Nechaeva, A.Y. Vasilyeva, I.Y. Vasilyev,
A.P. Preobrazhenskiy, I.Y. Lvovich


Informational training system contains visual, generalized, structured material on micronuclear analysis of human buccal epithelium cells: the history of the development of method, methodology, description of objects of analysis, photos of nuclear anomalies, list of factors affecting the genetic apparatus, materials for interactive assessment of learning outcomes. The informational training system allows to the researcher to quickly and visually get acquainted with the methodology of the micronucleus test, learn how to analyze microscopic preparations, find and correctly determine the anomalies of the nucleus of epithelial cells, carry out statistical processing of the results obtained and at the end of mastering the technique to evaluate the skills obtained through interactive testing. This information system summarizes the results of Russian and international studies on the assessment of the genetic homeostasis of the human organism using micronucleus test in the buccal epithelium, thereby contributing to the development of a standardized methodology and unifying approaches to describing the results of experiments to avoid incorrect interpretation of the data. The information system presents training video demonstrating the collection of material, preparation of micropreparations, basic equipment and reagents used in the performance of micronuclear analysis. The information system promotes the introduction of the micronucleus test in the human buccal epithelium as a routine procedure in clinical practice, monitoring of the environment, assessment of occupational risks, and allows for the development of measures to assess human genetic safety.

Keywords: :database, micronucleus test, human buccal epithelium, anomalies of the nucleus, epithelial cells of the oral cavity

Full text:
KalaevSoavtori_2_19_1.pdf

EXPERT EVALUATION AND OPTIMIZATION MODELING OF CONTROL AND OVERSIGHT ACTIVITY ON ENSURING THE QUALITY OF DRUGS

UDC 05.13.10
doi: 10.26102/2310-6018/2019.24.1.044

I.V. Safonov, Y.E. Lvovich


Ensuring the quality of medicines is currently one of the most important provisions of the state health policy. To reduce the risk of receipt of substandard and counterfeit medicines to the population, it is necessary to optimize the functioning of the current system of control and supervision activities aimed at the optimal use of available resources under specified conditions and restrictions. The main form of control and supervisory activities are inspections of objects of circulation of medicines or objects of control. To ensure an optimal plan for the audit, an optimization model is proposed that minimizes the number of objects included in the inspection plan, taking into account the limitation on planned costs and the necessary frequency of inspection of producers at risk. At the same time, the maximum number of tested drugs should be provided during the inspection of each object. A model refers to the problems of the multialternative optimization. A two-step procedure is proposed to solve this problem. A typical problem of discrete programming is solved – the problem of minimal coverage. When searching for the number of dominant solutions to the problem, basic variational procedures are used to obtain several solutions. To select the best option, it is proposed to use expert evaluation procedures. The developed optimization model is aimed at wide application in the work of the regional Department of Roszdravnadzor of the Voronezh region.

Keywords: expert evaluation,optimization modeling, the problem of minimum coverage, control and supervisory activities, drugs.

Full text:
SafonovLvovich_1_19_1.pdf

CODE IMAGES OF ELECTRIC CELL INFORMATION SIGNAL SIGNALS FOR CONTROLLING ROBOT-TECHNICAL DEVICES BY MEANS OF BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACE

UDC 004.5
doi: 10.26102/2310-6018/2019.24.1.025

S.A. Philist, E.V. Petrunina, A.A. Trifonov, A.V. Serebrovsky

A method based on the use of code images obtained by generating a set of code messages on a certain EEG segment is proposed for decoding EEG in brain-computer interfaces. A code message is generated by encoding EEG signals at the outputs of a block of band-pass filters. In the frequency range of the EEG, four frequency bands are allocated, which corresponds to four channels for each EEG lead. The code messages of the four channels form the image of the EEG, which, when decoded, receives control signals to the servos of the robotic device. The image of the code messages is formed on the basis of the theory of multisets. For training the EEG image classifier, a software and hardware complex is used, including an electromyograph, an electroencephalograph, a band-pass filter unit and a computing device that discrete the signals from the electromyograph output and the band pass filter unit. The label of the image class was determined by the electromyograph lead signal corresponding to the motor unit being classified. Records with the fields of the code image and the corresponding class label of the control command are placed in the database. The proposed method is an alternative to the method of EEG decoding based on biofeedback.

Keywords: :brain-computer interface, electroencephalogram, electromyogram, image of code messages, multiset, learner classifier, algorithm, training sample.

Full text:
PhilistSoavtori_1_19_1.pdf

FORECESSION ELECTROMYOGRAPHY RECOGNITION AND GESTURES SELECTION FOR PROTESIS CONTROL

UDC 612.743, 612.817.2
doi: 10.26102/2310-6018/2019.24.1.017

R.Y. Budko, N.N. Chernov, N.A. Budko, A.Y. Budko

The relevance of this study is due to one of the main problems existing today in the field of building man-machine interfaces – is the creation of an effective management system that interacts directly with the user and external devices replacing functions (prostheses, wheelchairs, etc.). In this regard, this work is devoted to the study of the possibility of using physiological gestures from the daily life of a person to control the prosthesis with the safety of the forearm for at least one third. The leading approach to the study of this problem is the use of methods of statistical processing of experimental data, digital signal processing, machine learning algorithms and pattern recognition. This approach allows a comprehensive study of the electromyogram (EMG) of the forearm when making voluntary movements at different levels of the implementation of the myo-control system. The article presents the results of the EMG study recorded for 11 arbitrary movements from a group of subjects, describes the procedure for pre-processing the EMG and identifying characteristic features for signal recognition, discloses a method for classifying movements using an artificial neural network based on radial basic functions (RBF). Eight of the most suitable for classification movements were identified and ranked according to the classification accuracy: relaxation (like zero movement), hand opening, fist, hand flexion, hand supination, hand extension, hand pronation, pinch. The materials of the article are of practical value for building systems based on the human-machine interface, as well as for classification tasks in electrophysiology applications.

Keywords: :electromyogram, prosthesis, biocontrol, human-machine interface, machine learning, artificial neural networks.

Full text:
BudkoSoavtori_1_19_1.pdf

FUZZY MODELS OF THE ESTIMATION OF THE LEVEL OF ERGONOMICS OF TECHNICAL SYSTEMS AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE STATE OF HEALTH OF A HUMAN OPERATOR TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE FUNCTIONAL RESERVE OF THE BODY

UDC 614.2
doi: 10.26102/2310-6018/2019.24.1.015

N.A.Korenevskiy, S.N.Rodionova, T.N.Govorukhina, M.A.Myasoedova

The paper studies the impact of the ergonomics of technical systems on the emergence and development of occupational diseases of a human operator, taking into account the functional reserve of his body. In view of the complexity of the analytical description of the interaction mechanisms of the human-technical system, a methodology for the synthesis of hybrid fuzzy decision rules, focused on solving poorly formalizable problems, was chosen as the mathematical apparatus of research. In the framework of the chosen methodology, the individual estimates of the ergonomic level by basic indicators are averaged by the functions of the ergonomic level, which are aggregated into final decision rules. Evaluation of the impact of ergonomic level and other significant risk factors is carried out using the appropriate membership functions, which are aggregated into fuzzy models of forecasting and early diagnosis of occupational diseases. Using the example of diseases of the nervous system in drivers of Russian-made tractors, it has been shown that the simultaneous consideration of ergonomic risk factors and the size of the functional reserve with other significant endogenous and exogenous factors helps to improve the quality of decisions made about the health status of the human body. At the same time, confidence in the correctness of the prognosis and early diagnosis exceeds 0.86, which allows us to recommend the resulting decision-making models in the practice of occupational physicians.

Keywords: : ergonomics, functional reserve, health status, membership functions, fuzzy logic, prediction, early diagnosis.

Full text:
KorenevskiySoavtori_1_19_1.pdf

A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE ASSESSMENT OF THE SEVERITY OF GENITAL HERPES ON THE BASIS OF FUZZY LOGIC

UDC 615.47
doi: 10.26102/2310-6018/2019.24.1.009

M.I. Lukashov, E.V Pismennaya, O.Y. Olisova, L.V. Starodubtseva, L.V. Shulga


The work is devoted to the urgent problem of improving the quality of medical care for the population suffering from genital herpes due to the timely and qualitative assessment of the severity of the disease under study. In the course of the research, a fuzzy mathematical model was obtained, which allows to distinguish four classes of patient’s conditions: patients with clinically undetectable genital herpes; patients with detected traces of herpes; patients with detected herpes; patients with clinically observed herpes. The methodology used in the synthesis of hybrid fuzzy decision rules allows to reliably separate the selected classes of States in the conditions of incomplete and fuzzy representation of the original data with a strongly overlapping structure of classes. The chosen classification system allows to rationalize the choice of treatment regimens depending on the individual condition of patients. As a result of the research it was found that the use of fuzzy logic of decision-making, can improve the quality of decision-making, according to the stages of disease by 10,…, 15% and reduce the duration of treatment by 5,…10%, which allows us to recommend the results for use in medical practice.

Keywords: : mathematical model, genital herpes, fuzzy logic of decision – making, laboratory indicators.

Full text:
LukashovSoavtori_1_19_1.pdf